Location: guide/license-texts.tex

bkuhn
Citations of third-party works in appendix only. As alluded to in 2ea19b71d4a917babb29024f06acabfe73309f40 's commit message on 2014-12-17 19:52:15 -0500, keeping any information on a part-by-part basis is difficult and error-prone, since there exists no reliable way to auto-generate such information accurately. Therefore, citations to third-party works, in addition to remaining fully documented in the commit log as they always have been, are now placed in specifically one location in the body of the text itself: a single appendix specifically designed for that purpose. In this manner, contributors have no house-keeping work regarding citations. Contributors need only list third party works and links in one place: third-party-citations.tex. Documentation in CONTRIBUTING.md for making contributions of third-party works is left as a TODO.
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% license-texts.tex -*- LaTeX -*-
% Tutorial Text for the Detailed Study and Analysis of GPL and LGPL course
%
% Copyright (C) 1989, 1991, 1999, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
\vfill
The remaining appendices include a full copy of GPLv2, GPLv3,
LGPLv2.1, LGPLv3, and AGPLv3. These are the most commonly used licenses in
the GPL family of licenses.
\chapter{The GNU General Public License, version 2}
\begin{center}
{\parindent 0in
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright \copyright\ 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
\bigskip
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
\bigskip
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
{\bf\large Preamble}
\end{center}
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change Free
Software---to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of Free Software, we are referring to freedom, not price.
Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the
freedom to distribute copies of Free Software (and charge for this service
if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it,
that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new Free programs;
and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to
deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These
restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or
for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You
must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And
you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2)
offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that
everyone understands that there is no warranty for this Free Software. If
the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its
recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any
problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors'
reputations.
Finally, any Free program is threatened constantly by software patents.
We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a Free program will
individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program
proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must
be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
\begin{center}
{\Large \sc Terms and Conditions For Copying, Distribution and
Modification}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\addtocounter{enumi}{-1}
\item
This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the
terms of this General Public License. The ``Program,'' below, refers to
any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program'' means either
the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a
work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with
modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter,
translation is included without limitation in the term ``modification.'')
Each licensee is addressed as ``you.''
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
\item You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously
and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice
and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to
this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other
recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you
may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
\item
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
\begin{enumerate}
\item
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
you changed the files and the date of any change.
\item
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
\item
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
\end{enumerate}
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
\label{GPLv2s3-full-text}
\item
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
\begin{enumerate}
\item
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
\item
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
\item
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
\end{enumerate}
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
\item
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
\item
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
\item
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
\item
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the Free Software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
\item
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
\item
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
\item
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our Free Software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc
No Warranty
}
\end{center}
\item
{\sc Because the program is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty
for the program, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Except when
otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties
provide the program ``as is'' without warranty of any kind, either expressed
or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as
to the quality and performance of the program is with you. Should the
program prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing,
repair or correction.}
\item {\sc In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to
in writing will any copyright holder, or any other party who may
modify and/or redistribute the program as permitted above, be
liable to you for damages, including any general, special,
incidental or consequential damages arising out of the use or
inability to use the program (including but not limited to loss of
data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustained by you
or third parties or a failure of the program to operate with any
other programs), even if such holder or other party has been
advised of the possibility of such damages.}
\end{enumerate}
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc End of Terms and Conditions}
\end{center}
\vfill
\pagebreak[4]
\section*{Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs}
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
Free Software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to
attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey
the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
\begin{quote}
one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does. \\
Copyright (C) yyyy name of author \\
This program is Free Software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
\end{quote}
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
\begin{quote}
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) yyyy name of author \\
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. \\
This is Free Software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
\end{quote}
The hypothetical commands {\tt show w} and {\tt show c} should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands
you use may be called something other than {\tt show w} and {\tt show c};
they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever suits your
program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
\begin{quote}
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program \\
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. \\
signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989 \\
Ty Coon, President of Vice
\end{quote}
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications
with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library
General Public License instead of this License.
\chapter{The GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2.1}
\begin{center}
{\parindent 0in
Version 2.1, February 1999
Copyright \copyright\ 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
\bigskip
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
\bigskip
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
\bigskip
[This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts
as the successor of the GNU Library Public License version 2, hence
the version number 2.1.]
}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
{\bf\large Preamble}
\end{center}
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to
share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are
intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change Free Software---to
make sure the software is free for all its users.
This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some specially
designated software packages---typically libraries---of the Free Software
Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too,
but we suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the
ordinary General Public License is the better strategy to use in any
particular case, based on the explanations below.
When we speak of Free Software, we are referring to freedom of use, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of Free Software (and charge for
this service if you wish); that you receive source code or can get it if
you want it; that you can change the software and use pieces of it in new
Free programs; and that you are informed that you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
distributors to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender these
rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you
if you distribute copies of the library or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of the library, whether gratis or
for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that we gave you.
You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. If
you link other code with the library, you must provide complete object
files to the recipients, so that they can relink them with the library
after making changes to the library and recompiling it. And you must show
them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with a two-step method: (1) we copyright the
library, and (2) we offer you this license, which gives you legal
permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the library.
To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is
no warranty for the Free library. Also, if the library is modified by
someone else and passed on, the recipients should know that what they have
is not the original version, so that the original author's reputation will
not be affected by problems that might be introduced by others.
Finally, software patents pose a constant threat to the existence of any
Free program. We wish to make sure that a company cannot effectively
restrict the users of a Free program by obtaining a restrictive license
from a patent holder. Therefore, we insist that any patent license
obtained for a version of the library must be consistent with the full
freedom of use specified in this license.
Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary
GNU General Public License. This license, the GNU Lesser General Public
License, applies to certain designated libraries, and is quite different
from the ordinary General Public License. We use this license for certain
libraries in order to permit linking those libraries into non-Free
programs.
When a program is linked with a library, whether statically or using a
shared library, the combination of the two is legally speaking a combined
work, a derivative of the original library. The ordinary General Public
License therefore permits such linking only if the entire combination fits
its criteria of freedom. The Lesser General Public License permits more
lax criteria for linking other code with the library.
We call this license the ``Lesser'' General Public License because it does
Less to protect the user's freedom than the ordinary General Public
License. It also provides other Free Software developers Less of an
advantage over competing non-Free programs. These disadvantages are the
reason we use the ordinary General Public License for many libraries.
However, the Lesser license provides advantages in certain special
circumstances.
For example, on rare occasions, there may be a special need to encourage
the widest possible use of a certain library, so that it becomes a
de-facto standard. To achieve this, non-Free programs must be allowed to
use the library. A more frequent case is that a Free library does the
same job as widely used non-Free libraries. In this case, there is little
to gain by limiting the Free library to Free Software only, so we use the
Lesser General Public License.
In other cases, permission to use a particular library in non-Free
programs enables a greater number of people to use a large body of Free
software. For example, permission to use the GNU C Library in non-Free
programs enables many more people to use the whole GNU operating system,
as well as its variant, the GNU/Linux operating system.
Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the
users' freedom, it does ensure that the user of a program that is linked
with the library has the freedom and the wherewithal to run that program
using a modified version of the library.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow. Pay close attention to the difference between a
``work based on the library'' and a ``work that uses the library.'' The
former contains code derived from the library, whereas the latter must be
combined with the library in order to run.
\begin{center}
{\Large \sc GNU Lesser General Public License} \\
{\Large \sc Terms and Conditions For Copying, Distribution and
Modification}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\addtocounter{enumi}{-1}
\item
This License Agreement applies to any software library or other program
which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder or other authorized
party saying it may be distributed under the terms of this Lesser General
Public License (also called ``this License''). Each licensee is addressed
as ``you.''
A ``library'' means a collection of software functions and/or data
prepared so as to be conveniently linked with application programs (which
use some of those functions and data) to form executables.
The ``library,'' below, refers to any such software library or work which
has been distributed under these terms. A ``work based on the library''
means either the library or any derivative work under copyright law: that
is to say, a work containing the library or a portion of it, either
verbatim or with modifications and/or translated straightforwardly into
another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without
limitation in the term ``modification.'')
``Source code'' for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
modifications to it. For a library, complete source code means all the
source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and
installation of the library.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running a
program using the library is not restricted, and output from such a
program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
library (independent of the use of the library in a tool for writing it).
Whether that is true depends on what the library does and what the program
that uses the library does.
\item
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the library's complete
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices
that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and
distribute a copy of this License along with the library.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a
fee.
\item
You may modify your copy or copies of the library or any portion of it,
thus forming a work based on the library, and copy and distribute such
modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that
you also meet all of these conditions:
\begin{enumerate}
\item
The modified work must itself be a software library.
\item
You must cause the files modified to carry prominent notices stating
that you changed the files and the date of any change.
\item
You must cause the whole of the work to be licensed at no charge to
all third parties under the terms of this License.
\item
If a facility in the modified library refers to a function or a table
of data to be supplied by an application program that uses the
facility, other than as an argument passed when the facility is
invoked, then you must make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the
event an application does not supply such function or table, the
facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose
remains meaningful.
(For example, a function in a library to compute square roots has a
purpose that is entirely well-defined independent of the application.
Therefore, Subsection 2d requires that any application-supplied function
or table used by this function must be optional: if the application does
not supply it, the square root function must still compute square roots.)
\end{enumerate}
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable
sections of that work are not derived from the library, and can be
reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then
this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you
distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same
sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the library, the
distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose
permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to
each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your
rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise
the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works
based on the library.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the library
with the library (or with a work based on the library) on a volume of a
storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the
scope of this License.
\item
You may opt to apply the terms of the ordinary GNU General Public License
instead of this License to a given copy of the library. To do this, you
must alter all the notices that refer to this License, so that they refer
to the ordinary GNU General Public License version 2, instead of to this
License. (If a newer version than version 2 of the ordinary GNU General
Public License has appeared, then you can specify that version instead if
you wish.) Do not make any other change in these notices.
Once this change is made in a given copy, it is irreversible for that
copy, so the ordinary GNU General Public License applies to all subsequent
copies and derivative works made from that copy.
This option is useful when you wish to copy part of the code of the
library into a program that is not a library.
\item
You may copy and distribute the library (or a portion or derivative of it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you accompany it with the complete
corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed
under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for
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If distribution of object code is made by offering access to copy from a
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from the same place satisfies the requirement to distribute the source
code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along
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\item
A program that contains no derivative of any portion of the library, but
is designed to work with the library by being compiled or linked with it,
is called a ``work that uses the library.'' Such a work, in isolation, is
not a derivative work of the library, and therefore falls outside the
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However, linking a ``work that uses the library'' with the library creates
an executable that is a derivative of the library (because it contains
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The executable is therefore covered by this License. Section 6 states
terms for distribution of such executables.
When a ``work that uses the library'' uses material from a header file
that is part of the library, the object code for the work may be a
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Whether this is true is especially significant if the work can be linked
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for this to be true is not precisely defined by law.
If such an object file uses only numerical parameters, data structure
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regardless of whether it is legally a derivative work. (Executables
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Otherwise, if the work is a derivative of the library, you may distribute
the object code for the work under the terms of Section 6. Any
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\item
As an exception to the Sections above, you may also combine or link a
``work that uses the library'' with the library to produce a work
containing portions of the library, and distribute that work under terms
of your choice, provided that the terms permit modification of the work
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You must give prominent notice with each copy of the work that the library
is used in it and that the library and its use are covered by this
License. You must supply a copy of this License. If the work during
execution displays copyright notices, you must include the copyright
notice for the library among them, as well as a reference directing the
user to the copy of this License. Also, you must do one of these things:
\begin{enumerate}
\item
Accompany the work with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code for the library including whatever changes were used in
the work (which must be distributed under Sections 1 and 2 above);
and, if the work is an executable linked with the library, with the
complete machine-readable ``work that uses the library,'' as object
code and/or source code, so that the user can modify the library and
then relink to produce a modified executable containing the modified
library. (It is understood that the user who changes the contents of
definitions files in the library will not necessarily be able to
recompile the application to use the modified definitions.)
\item
Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the library.
A suitable mechanism is one that (1) uses at run time a copy of the
library already present on the user's computer system, rather than
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\item
Accompany the work with a written offer, valid for at least three
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above, for a charge no more than the cost of performing this
distribution.
\item
If distribution of the work is made by offering access to copy from a
designated place, offer equivalent access to copy the above specified
materials from the same place.
\item
Verify that the user has already received a copy of these materials or
that you have already sent this user a copy.
\end{enumerate}
For an executable, the required form of the ``work that uses the library''
must include any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the
executable from it. However, as a special exception, the materials to be
distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in
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that component itself accompanies the executable.
It may happen that this requirement contradicts the license restrictions
of other proprietary libraries that do not normally accompany the
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the library together in an executable that you distribute.
\item
You may place library facilities that are a work based on the library
side-by-side in a single library together with other library facilities
not covered by this License, and distribute such a combined library,
provided that the separate distribution of the work based on the library
and of the other library facilities is otherwise permitted, and provided
that you do these two things:
\begin{enumerate}
\item
Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on
the library, uncombined with any other library facilities. This must
be distributed under the terms of the Sections above.
\item
Give prominent notice with the combined library of the fact that part
of it is a work based on the library, and explaining where to find
the accompanying uncombined form of the same work.
\end{enumerate}
\item
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the
library except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, link with, or distribute the
library is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you
under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as
such parties remain in full compliance.
\item
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed
it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute
the library or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by
law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or
distributing the library (or any work based on the library), you
indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and
conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the library or works
based on it.
\item
Each time you redistribute the library (or any work based on the
library), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute, link with or modify the library
subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with
this License.
\item
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the library at all. For example, if a patent license
would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the library by all those
who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way
you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely
from distribution of the library.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply, and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the Free Software distribution system which is implemented
by public license practices. Many people have made generous
contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that
system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to
the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute
software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that
choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be
a consequence of the rest of this License.
% \pagebreak[4]
\item
If the distribution and/or use of the library is restricted in certain
countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original
copyright holder who places the library under this License may add an
explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries,
so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus
excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if
written in the body of this License.
\item
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the library
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that version or of any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation. If the library does not specify a license
version number, you may choose any version ever published by the Free
Software Foundation.
\item
If you wish to incorporate parts of the library into other Free programs
whose distribution conditions are incompatible with these, write to the
author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the
Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we
sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the
two goals of preserving the Free status of all derivatives of our Free
software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc
No Warranty
}
\end{center}
\item
{\sc Because the library is licensed free of charge, there is no
warranty for the library, to the extent permitted by applicable law.
Except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or
other parties provide the library ``as is'' without warranty of any
kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular
purpose. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the
library is with you. should the library prove defective, you assume
the cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction.}
% \pagebreak[4]
\item
{\sc In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing
will any copyright holder, or any other party who may modify and/or
redistribute the library as permitted above, be liable to you for
damages, including any general, special, incidental or consequential
damages arising out of the use or inability to use the library
(including but not limited to loss of data or data being rendered
inaccurate or losses sustained by you or third parties or a failure of
the library to operate with any other software), even if such holder or
other party has been advised of the possibility of such damages.}
\end{enumerate}
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc End of Terms and Conditions}
\end{center}
\vfill
\pagebreak[4]
\section*{How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries}
If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, we recommend making it Free Software that
everyone can redistribute and change. You can do so by permitting
redistribution under these terms (or, alternatively, under the terms of
the ordinary General Public License).
To apply these terms, attach the following notices to the library. It is
safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
\begin{quote}
one line to give the library's name and a brief idea of what it does. \\
Copyright (C) year name of author \\
This library is Free Software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.
This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public
License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
\end{quote}
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the library, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
\begin{quote}
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program \\
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. \\
signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1990 \\
Ty Coon, President of Vice
\end{quote}
\chapter{The GNU General Public License, version 3}
\label{GPLv3-full-text}
\begin{center}
{\parindent 0in
Version 3, 29 June 2007
Copyright \copyright\ 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. \texttt{http://fsf.org/}
\bigskip
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
{\bf\large Preamble}
\end{center}
The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
software and other kinds of works.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
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To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights. Therefore, you have
certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received. You must make sure that they, too, receive
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know their rights.
Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
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For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
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Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
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Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
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The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
\begin{center}
{\Large \sc Terms and Conditions}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\addtocounter{enumi}{-1}
\item Definitions.
``This License'' refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
``Copyright'' also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
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``The Program'' refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
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A ``covered work'' means either the unmodified Program or a work based
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To ``propagate'' a work means to do anything with it that, without
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To ``convey'' a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
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\item Source Code.
The ``source code'' for a work means the preferred form of the work
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The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
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\item Basic Permissions.
All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
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When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
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\begin{enumerate}
\item The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified
it, and giving a relevant date.
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A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
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beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work
in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other
parts of the aggregate.
\label{GPLv3s6-full-text}
\item Conveying Non-Source Forms.
You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
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\begin{enumerate}
\item Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
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\end{enumerate}
A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded
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A ``User Product'' is either (1) a ``consumer product'', which means any
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\item Additional Terms.
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\begin{enumerate}
\item Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the
terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
\item Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or
author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal
Notices displayed by works containing it; or
\item Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or
requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in
reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
\item Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or
authors of the material; or
\item Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some
trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
\item Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that
material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of
it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for
any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on
those licensors and authors.
\end{enumerate}
All other non-permissive additional terms are considered ``further
restrictions'' within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you
received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is
governed by this License along with a term that is a further
restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains
a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms
of that license document, provided that the further restriction does
not survive such relicensing or conveying.
If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
where to find the applicable terms.
Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
the above requirements apply either way.
\item Termination.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
material under section 10.
\item Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work
occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
\item Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible
for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An ``entity transaction'' is a transaction transferring control of an
organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered
work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
\item Patents.
A ``contributor'' is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's ``contributor version''.
A contributor's ``essential patent claims'' are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For
purposes of this definition, ``control'' includes the right to grant
patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a ``patent license'' is any express
agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
(such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
sue for patent infringement). To ``grant'' such a patent license to a
party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients. ``Knowingly relying'' means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.
A patent license is ``discriminatory'' if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
\item No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
\item Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.
\item Revised Versions of this License.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.
\item Disclaimer of Warranty.
\begin{sloppypar}
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS''
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE
RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
\end{sloppypar}
\item Limitation of Liability.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES
AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM
(INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED
INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE
OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH
HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES.
\item Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc End of Terms and Conditions}
\bigskip
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
\end{center}
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
{\footnotesize
\begin{verbatim}
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <textyear> <name of author>
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
\end{verbatim}
}
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
{\footnotesize
\begin{verbatim}
<program> Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
\end{verbatim}
}
The hypothetical commands {\tt show w} and {\tt show c} should show
the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an ``about box''.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see \texttt{http://www.gnu.org/licenses/}.
The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License. But
first, please read \texttt{http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html}.
\end{enumerate}
\chapter{The Affero General Public License, version 3}
\begin{center}
{\parindent 0in
Version 3, 19 November 2007
Copyright \copyright\ 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. \texttt{http://fsf.org/}
\bigskip
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
license document, but changing it is not allowed.}
\end{center}
\begin{center}
{\bf\large Preamble}
\end{center}
The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license
for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure
cooperation with the community in the case of network server software.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are
designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By
contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your
freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it
remains free software for all its users.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights
with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer
you this License which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute
and/or modify the software.
A secondary benefit of defending all users' freedom is that
improvements made in alternate versions of the program, if they
receive widespread use, become available for other developers to
incorporate. Many developers of free software are heartened and
encouraged by the resulting cooperation. However, in the case of
software used on network servers, this result may fail to come about.
The GNU General Public License permits making a modified version and
letting the public access it on a server without ever releasing its
source code to the public.
The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to
ensure that, in such cases, the modified source code becomes available
to the community. It requires the operator of a network server to
provide the source code of the modified version running there to the
users of that server. Therefore, public use of a modified version, on
a publicly accessible server, gives the public access to the source
code of the modified version.
An older license, called the Affero General Public License and
published by Affero, was designed to accomplish similar goals. This is
a different license, not a version of the Affero GPL, but Affero has
released a new version of the Affero GPL which permits relicensing under
this license.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
\begin{center}
{\Large \sc Terms and Conditions}
\end{center}
\begin{enumerate}
\addtocounter{enumi}{-1}
\item Definitions.
``This License'' refers to version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License.
``Copyright'' also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
works, such as semiconductor masks.
``The Program'' refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
License. Each licensee is addressed as ``you''. ``Licensees'' and
``recipients'' may be individuals or organizations.
To ``modify'' a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
exact copy. The resulting work is called a ``modified version'' of the
earlier work or a work ``based on'' the earlier work.
A ``covered work'' means either the unmodified Program or a work based
on the Program.
To ``propagate'' a work means to do anything with it that, without
permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying,
distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
public, and in some countries other activities as well.
To ``convey'' a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through
a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.
An interactive user interface displays ``Appropriate Legal Notices''
to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the
extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the
work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If
the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a
menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.
\item Source Code.
The ``source code'' for a work means the preferred form of the work
for making modifications to it. ``Object code'' means any non-source
form of a work.
A ``Standard Interface'' means an interface that either is an official
standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of
interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
is widely used among developers working in that language.
The ``System Libraries'' of an executable work include anything, other
than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of
packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major
Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that
Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an
implementation is available to the public in source code form. A
``Major Component'', in this context, means a major essential component
(kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system
(if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to
produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.
The ``Corresponding Source'' for a work in object code form means all
the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable
work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to
control those activities. However, it does not include the work's
System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free
programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but
which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source
includes interface definition files associated with source files for
the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically
linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require,
such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those
subprograms and other parts of the work.
The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users
can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding
Source.
The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
same work.
\item Basic Permissions.
All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated
conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a
covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its
content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your
rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.
You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains
in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose
of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you
with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with
the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do
not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works
for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction
and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of
your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.
Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under
the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10
makes it unnecessary.
\item Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.
No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological
measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article
11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or
similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such
measures.
When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention
is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to
the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or
modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's
users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of
technological measures.
\item Conveying Verbatim Copies.
You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice;
keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code;
keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all
recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.
\item Conveying Modified Source Versions.
You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the
terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
\begin{enumerate}
\item The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified
it, and giving a relevant date.
\item The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
released under this License and any conditions added under section
7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to
``keep intact all notices''.
\item You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This
License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7
additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts,
regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no
permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not
invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.
\item If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive
interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your
work need not make them do so.
\end{enumerate}
A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work,
and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program,
in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an
``aggregate'' if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not
used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users
beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work
in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other
parts of the aggregate.
\item Conveying Non-Source Forms.
You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the
machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License,
in one of these ways:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
(including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the
Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium
customarily used for software interchange.
\item Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
(including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a
written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as
long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product
model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a
copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the
product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical
medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no
more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this
conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the
Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.
\item Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the
written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This
alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and
only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord
with subsection 6b.
\item Convey the object code by offering access from a designated
place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the
Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no
further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the
Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to
copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source
may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party)
that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain
clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the
Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the
Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is
available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements.
\item Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided
you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding
Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no
charge under subsection 6d.
\end{enumerate}
A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded
from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be
included in conveying the object code work.
A ``User Product'' is either (1) a ``consumer product'', which means any
tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family,
or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation
into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product,
doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular
product received by a particular user, ``normally used'' refers to a
typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status
of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user
actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product
is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial
commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent
the only significant mode of use of the product.
``Installation Information'' for a User Product means any methods,
procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install
and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from
a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must
suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object
code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because
modification has been made.
If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or
specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as
part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the
User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a
fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the
Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied
by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply
if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install
modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has
been installed in ROM).
The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a
requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates
for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for
the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a
network may be denied when the modification itself materially and
adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and
protocols for communication across the network.
Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided,
in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly
documented (and with an implementation available to the public in
source code form), and must require no special password or key for
unpacking, reading or copying.
\item Additional Terms.
``Additional permissions'' are terms that supplement the terms of this
License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions.
Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall
be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent
that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions
apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately
under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by
this License without regard to the additional permissions.
When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of
it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place
additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work,
for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you
add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of
that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the
terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
\item Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or
author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal
Notices displayed by works containing it; or
\item Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or
requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in
reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
\item Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or
authors of the material; or
\item Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some
trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
\item Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that
material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of
it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for
any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on
those licensors and authors.
\end{enumerate}
All other non-permissive additional terms are considered ``further
restrictions'' within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you
received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is
governed by this License along with a term that is a further
restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains
a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms
of that license document, provided that the further restriction does
not survive such relicensing or conveying.
If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
where to find the applicable terms.
Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
the above requirements apply either way.
\item Termination.
You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
paragraph of section 11).
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
material under section 10.
\item Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work
occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do
not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.
\item Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible
for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.
An ``entity transaction'' is a transaction transferring control of an
organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered
work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.
\item Patents.
A ``contributor'' is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's ``contributor version''.
A contributor's ``essential patent claims'' are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For
purposes of this definition, ``control'' includes the right to grant
patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
this License.
Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
propagate the contents of its contributor version.
In the following three paragraphs, a ``patent license'' is any express
agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
(such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
sue for patent infringement). To ``grant'' such a patent license to a
party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
patent against the party.
If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients. ``Knowingly relying'' means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.
If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.
A patent license is ``discriminatory'' if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
\item No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.
\item Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the
Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting
with it remotely through a computer network (if your version supports such
interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your
version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network
server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of
facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include
the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU
General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following
paragraph.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to
link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of
the GNU General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey
the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to
the part which is the covered work, but the work with which it is combined
will remain governed by version 3 of the GNU General Public License.
\item Revised Versions of this License.
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General
Public License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.
Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.
\item Disclaimer of Warranty.
\begin{sloppypar}
THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS''
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE
RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
\end{sloppypar}
\item Limitation of Liability.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES
AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM
(INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED
INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE
OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH
HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGES.
\item Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.
\begin{center}
{\Large\sc End of Terms and Conditions}
\bigskip
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
\end{center}
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
{\footnotesize
\begin{verbatim}
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <textyear> <name of author>
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
\end{verbatim}
}
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer
network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to
get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its
interface could display a ``Source'' link that leads users to an archive
of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different
solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the
specific requirements.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU AGPL, see \texttt{http://www.gnu.org/licenses/}.
\end{enumerate}